Research has explored the possibility of replacing SSL with the use of enzymes . Enzyme technologies, by themselves, have not been able to completely replace SSL. A major limitation of enzymes is the production of gummy bread of unpredictable quality. Also, enzymes often do not augment dough strength, which is necessary to prevent loaf collapse during baking. Currently, enzymes are being used in conjunction with SSL to maximize the shelf life of bread. SSL is very good at increasing softness of bread during the first week after baking. Enzyme technology works best after the first 5 days of shelf life. Therefore, bread with optimal softness throughout the desired shelf life is obtained by using a combination of these technologies. 
The numbering scheme follows that of the International Numbering System (INS) as determined by the Codex Alimentarius committee,  though only a subset of the INS additives are approved for use in the European Union as food additives. Outside the European continent, E numbers are also encountered on food labelling in other jurisdictions, including the Cooperation Council for the Arab States of the Gulf , Australia, South Africa, New York City, New Zealand  and Israel . They are increasingly, though still rarely, found on North American packaging,  especially on imported European products.
Acacia contains a peroxidase enzyme, which is typically destroyed by brief exposure to heat. If not inactivated, this enzyme forms colored complexes with certain amines and phenols and enhances the destruction of many pharmaceutical products including alkaloids and readily oxidizable compounds such as some vitamins. 5 , 9 Acacia gum reduces the antibacterial effectiveness of the preservative methyl-p-hydroxybenzoate against Pseudomonas aeruginosa , presumably by offering physical barrier protection to the microbial cells from the action of the preservative. 15 A trypsin inhibitor also has been identified, but the clinical significance of the presence of this enzyme is not known. 8